Challenges for Energy Efficiency in Local and Regional Data Centers
G. Koutitas1 and P. Demestichas2
1School of Science and Technology, International Hellenic University, Thessaloniki, Greece;
2Department of Digital Systems, University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece;
This paper investigates challenges for achieving energy efficiency in local and regional datacenters. The challenges are divided into operational and planning categories that must be considered for the green transformation of the datacenter. The study shows that the standardization of the used metrics and guidelines are necessary for the reduction of the carbon emissions related to data centers. The paper presents a review of the available metrics and most modern techniques for energy efficiency. Numerous examples and reviews are discussed that introduce the reader to the most modern green technologies. Finally, the correlation of the energy efficient techniques to the overall carbon emissions is highlighted. It is shown that a green data center not only presents minimum operational expenditures but also produces low carbon emissions that are important to achieve sustainability in modern societies.
Low Carbon Economy Considerations in Designing and Operating Content Delivery Networks for VoD Services
Dragan Boscovic1, Michael Needham1, Faramak Vaki1 and Jin Yang2
1Motorola Applied Research Center, Schaumburg, IL 60196, USA
2Motorola Applied Research Center, Beijing, China
The advances in information, computer technology and broadband connectivity have eased the way to reach desired content. This is especially true for the Internet TV (IPTV) services such as Video-on-Demand (VoD). This has brought forth many technical challenges regarding the distribution of electronic content, such as how to send large video files, how to deal with the stream load from large numbers of users, and how to transmit the video stream to a global network over a long distance. To address this, Content Delivery Networks (CDN) have been brought into the overall VoD system design. CDNs are based on a system of data centers containing servers and massive storage that places copies from the content library closer to the end user. However, this trend brings some unfavorable conditions in terms of energy usage; worldwide, data centers account for a significant percentage of the total energy consumed by ICT industry. Better energy efficiency of data centers would significantly cut the CO2 emission from ICT operations. As a CDN is an assembly of mutually interconnected data centers the overall efficiency has to factor for efficiency of each CDN geographical node/data center. The aggregate energy efficiency could not be simple multiplication of individual data centers/servers involved but has to introduce corrective factors to account for energy efficiency tradeoffs brought about by specific geographical CDN topology and how effectively the additional resources deployed and energy consumed by them helps improve content access performance of a given CDN design. In this article, we aim to shed additional light onto the technical challenges and recommend possible improvements as related to the energy consumption within a given CDN topology.