Article first published online: 29 MAY 2015
Prem Kumar N1, Raj Kumar A1, Sundra Anand1, Dr. E. N. Ganesh2 and Dr. V. Prithiviraj3
1Final year B.E. (ECE), Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
2Dean R&I, Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
3Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engg (ECE), Rajalakshmi Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, India
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The communication protocols used in BaseTransceiver Station (BTS) could be harmful to human species and other life forms in the ecosystem. The BTS used for these systems could emit radiations beyond safety threshold. Therefore, it is essential to monitor such power radiation levels from time to time. Manual readings at each BTS are strenuous and time consuming work. This paper proposes radiation measurement using Quad Phone assembled within the Quadcopter using android software. Quadcopter is a low cost restricted payload machine which suits the measurement of radiation emitted from antenna towers and power lines. An application is developed to monitor the power radiation emitted by each of the bands and the associated communication protocol by utilizing the Quad Phone. It can use CDMA, GSM, 3G and LTE protocols at the designated frequency bands.AQuad Phone incorporating the android application is used to record power radiation levels at several points around a single tower facilitated by the Quadcopter flight navigation system. TheWave Point navigation is a hardware module used to move around a target point up to 16 locations and circle back to the initial position. The collected data regarding the radiated signal strength for different protocols are either transmitted through wireless or stored within the Quad Phone which could be retrieved later. The power readings around each base station can be recorded using the Quad Phone and the Quadcopter in the shortest time possible. Hence the combination of the Quad Phone mounted on the Quadcopter provides an excellent monitoring system for auditing the Electromagnetic Radiation(ER) and subsequently determine the Electromagnetic Pollution Index (EPI) from the delineated pockets of pollution regions.
Keywords: Base Transceiver Station (BTS), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Global system for Mobile Communications (GSM), Wave point navigation, Global Positioning System (GPS), Electromagnetic Radiation(ER).
THIS ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED: Cross Layer Design based Green Cellular Architecture Using Stochastic Optimization
L. Senthil Kumar1, J. Vasantha Kumar2 and M. Meenakshi3
1Research Scholar, CEG, Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India
2Post-Graduate Student, CEG, Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India
3Professor, CEG, Anna University, Tamil Nadu, India
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Cross layer techniques are in general used to enhance a network’s performance. Various cross layer models have been proposed by researchers for energy efficient scenarios, but most of these models do not consider all the fundamental Quality of service requirements along with energy efficiency. Quality of Service and Queue Stability affect the energy consumption and network performance in each time slot of a network. So an adaptive model is necessary to guarantee the Quality of service and Queue stability along with reduced energy consumption. The model proposed in this paper uses the stochastic drift plus penalty method to improve energy efficiency along with Quality of Service and Queue stability constraints. The optimization technique in the proposed model does not require channel density function. The energy efficiency improvement under Quality of Service and Queue Stability constraint is demonstrated by simulation studies in the paper.
Keywords: Cross layer, Quality of Service, stochastic drift plus penalty method, Energy efficiency, Queue Stability.
Setting Up a Low Cost Sustainable Telecommunication Infrastructure for Rural Communications in Developing Countries
Ram Krishna1, Ravinder Ambardar2 and S. Chandran3
1Telecom Engineering Centre, Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications & IT, Government of India, Janpath, New Delhi-110001, India
1Centre for development of Telematics, Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications & IT Government of India, Chattarpur, New Delhi-110030, India
3Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications & IT, Government of India, Janpath, New Delhi-110023, India
This paper provides information on Government of India initiative to provide Broadband services to Rural India. In the absence of reliable grid supply in rural areas, deployment of alternate power system plays major role to power the Broadband systems deployed in rural areas. Service expansion requires fast site setup and low power consumption. This is being challenged by site acquisition and construction issues because of inconvenient access to many rural areas and energy supply that is often unstable or cannot keep up with demand. This contribution paper provides methodology based on the experience of the actual on-site techniques adopted in Broadband Network resulting in huge savings on operating expenses due to fuel consumption of diesel gen-sets and to optimize & harvest maximum renewable energy from available renewable sources in the rural areas having either no grid or poor grid. The power of broadband and ICTs to transform the lives of individuals economic & social wellbeing of nations is well recognized world over and so is the power of Optical Fibre as an underlying infrastructure for Broadband. As a result Broadband is critical and dear to hearts of nations. Transformation through Broadband however requires pre-requisites of various factors of its eco-system to be in place for its take off. The complexity of eco system in Indian scenario amongst other factors is characterized by vast linguistic, cultural, terrain, diversity, affordability and digital literacy. This would mean multipronged parallel efforts on many fronts on parts of government, industry and all stake holders to contribute towards development of ecosystem before the true benefits of Broadband can reach masses there by changing fortune of nation. Already some work has been done by various stakeholders in various areas which have a good bearing on off take of Broadband. The experience needs to be leveraged.| Download File
The important property that can make Information and Communication Technology (ICT) interesting for human is human welfare and development. ICT bestows upon humanity the ability to defy distance and time. Human development is quantified in the annual World Human Development Report of the United Nations as progress in health and education. A healthy nation means more productive labour and an educated nation means more creative labour. ICT has many facets. The most visible part is the bandwidth used for communication. Modern technology delivers gigabits through a fibre optic medium and several megabits through the wireless medium. A combination of the two technologies along with specialised devices often called routers and switches (equivalent to post offices and beat constables) can enable flow of gigabits of information from one village to another. The villagers can have access to high quality medical help, quality education, and relevant information pertaining to crops, fertilizers, entertainment, and access to the Internet as is enjoyed by their urban counterparts.Around 70% of telecom towers are in rural areas, where grid connected electricity is not available and as a result, a very large chunk of the towers are powered by diesel generators which produce a total of 5.3 mnliters of CO2 every year. Due to this high dependence on diesel, the operational costs of these cell sites increase drastically to about 200% more than those where grid power availability is regular. So operators are left with no other option than to look for alternate power supply solutions like wind power, solar power, hybrid, or bio-diesel solutions.With decreasing ARPU and increased opex, operators need a future-oriented wireless network solution to handle the challenges and boost profits. Instead of looking for green solutions for their energy Setting Up a Low Cost Sustainable Telecommunication Infrastructure 3 requirements for the 0.35 mn plus towers, they looked for power efficient processes and more energy saving equipments for their entire network, and not just at tower sites. The major challenge today is also the high capex for the hybrid solutions, even though the ROIs are better. The telcos are looking out for the financial model, which is based upon opex.