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In recent years, issues on greenhouse pollution and power consumption related to the operation of information communication technology (ICT) devices have triggered a huge amount of research work towards green radio communication. Many of the power efficient solutions will introduce cost performance trade-offs. The energy efficient solution which also takes care of the quality requests of the mobile customer is really required for the 5G based green radio communication. It is identified that enhanced nodeBs (eNB) are power inefficient and not suited for many deployment scenarios. Multihop relay (MHR) network is the suitable alternate for eNB especially in the coverage holes and cell edges. But MHR network suffers by various quality issues like site planning and path selection. Many of the site planning and path selection schemes will fail under network imbalance conditions. In this work, we have proposed a hybrid throughput oriented (TO) – load aware spectral efficient routing (LASER) scheme which offers high performance even under network load imbalance conditions. The simulation results proved that the proposed scheme is more suited for future green radio communication.
Keywords: Green radio, LASER, path selection, site planning, TO scheme.
Measurement of Power Radiation in Base Transceiver Station Using Quad Phone and Quadcopter
Prem Kumar N1, Raj Kumar A1, Sundra Anand1, E. N. Ganesh2 and V. Prithiviraj3
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The communication protocols used in BaseTransceiver Station (BTS) could be harmful to human species and other life forms in the ecosystem. The BTS used for these systems could emit radiations beyond safety threshold. Therefore, it is essential to monitor such power radiation levels from time to time. Manual readings at each BTS are strenuous and time consuming work. This paper proposes radiation measurement using Quad Phone assembled within the Quadcopter using android software. Quadcopter is a low cost restricted payload machine which suits the measurement of radiation emitted from antenna towers and power lines. An application is developed to monitor the power radiation emitted by each of the bands and the associated communication protocol by utilizing the Quad Phone. It can use CDMA, GSM, 3G and LTE protocols at the designated frequency bands.AQuad Phone incorporating the android application is used to record power radiation levels at several points around a single tower facilitated by the Quadcopter flight navigation system. TheWave Point navigation is a hardware module used to move around a target point up to 16 locations and circle back to the initial position. The collected data regarding the radiated signal strength for different protocols are either transmitted through wireless or stored within the Quad Phone which could be retrieved later. The power readings around each base station can be recorded using the Quad Phone and the Quadcopter in the shortest time possible. Hence the combination of the Quad Phone mounted on the Quadcopter provides an excellent monitoring system for auditing the Electromagnetic Radiation (ER) and subsequently determine the Electromagnetic Pollution Index (EPI) from the delineated pockets of pollution regions.
Keywords: Base Transceiver Station (BTS), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Global system for Mobile Communications (GSM), Wave point navigation, Global Positioning System (GPS), Electromagnetic Radiation (ER).
Lyapunov Optimization Based Cross Layer Approach for Green Cellular Network
L. Senthilkumar1,∗, M. Meenakshi2 and J. Vasantha Kumar3
1Research Scholar, Anna University, Chennai, India
2Professor, Anna University, Chennai, India
3Master graduate Student, Anna University, Chennai, India
Environmental Hazards and Health Risks Associated with the Use of Mobile Phones
Manivannan Senthil Velmurugan
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Mobile phones are universally popular due to their convenience. Mobile phones solve problems such as interacting with the people, transfer of data through offering new channels of communication by using a device small enough to fit into one hand. On the other hand, mobile phones may be harmful to the environment and health, and waste disposal issues may be associated with its discharge of radiation. Concerns have been raised recently about the sustainability of mobile phones and its effects on people’s health and the environment. The present study discusses the adverse effects associated in using mobile phones, and addresses sustainable perspectives to overcome the same.
Keywords: Mobile phone, hazards, environment, health and sustainable.