1GRIC, Department of Project and Construction Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain
2CISTER, ISEP/INESC-TEC, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal
Smart grids play an important role in the modernization and optimization of the existing electrical grid, to accomplish the current European Union Energy and Climate targets. Smart grids require distributed applications to manage the grid more efficiently. The performance of the distributed applications impacts on the communications delay time and on the timely interaction with the devices located in the users’ Home Area Networks. This paper presents the results of the ENCOURAGE project related to the development of a software platform to support smart grids. The work presented in this paper assesses four different middleware configurations and analyses the results on the delay performance tests. The results show that the mean end-to-end delay is between 310 ms and 453 ms in proper conditions. In terms of operational costs, the optimal configuration enables managing houses with less than 0.25 Euros per month per house. This paper justifies the maturity of the technology to support smart grids, and the possibility to transfer the ENCOURAGE project results to the industry.
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Keywords: Smart grid, middleware, publish/subscribe, performance
1School of Electrical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore-632014, India
2Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry-605014, India
This paper considers power allocation across MIMO channels for transmitting two different Classes of Service. MIMO provides multiple parallel channels and it transmits different types of services separately because of different Quality of Service requirements. A high priority class of service named as Constant Bit Rate Traffic has limited delay constraints. So priority is given to this traffic in power allocation and then remaining power is allocated to other services i.e. here Best Effort Traffic based on water-filling algorithm. Analytical expressions are presented to assess the outage probability in terms of average access time and the effect of channel estimation error in throughput is also studied. Numerical results and Analysis are also provided to evaluate the Performance indices like outage probability, throughput and probability of access of both classes of service by optimally allocating the power. The Analysis is carried out for uncorrelated Rayleigh-fading channels with and without interference.
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Keywords: Power allocation, Outage Probability, Throughput, Probability of Access, MIMO.
Interaction of Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid based on Game Theory for Smoothing Peak Load and CO2 Reduction
1STIC Laboratory, University of Tlemcen, Algeria
2Univ. Bourgogne Franche Comté, F58000, 49 Rue Mademoiselle Bourgeois, 58000, Nevers, France
Vehicle to Grid (V2G) concept concerns the ability to inject the power contained in the batteries of the electric vehicles (EVs) into the smart grid (SG). The present paper deals with this concept in order to flatten the daily load curve with a particular focus on the interaction between EVs and SG. Based on that, a proposed novel model using a Bayesian game approach is built to study this interaction. The model takes into account the major challenges of V2G technology, such as the availability of EV and the battery lifetime. In addition, unlike most of the existing research work, we introduce in our formulation a new factor representing the impact on the environment so as to encourage the usage of renewable sources. This factor has a significant effect on the player’s decisions as well as on the simulation results. Finally, with the help of Bayesian Nash Equilibrium (BNE), we study the interaction’s probability between players (SG and EV) for three periods of the day (off-peak, mid and peak hours). Simulations are carried out using real data and illustrate the effectiveness and merits of the proposed model in order to answer the raised questions: what is the best period of the day chosen by EV to provide power to the electric grid and SG to supply energy from the EV?, and what is the benefit of EV owners, SG and the environment in using V2G technology?
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Keywords: Electric vehicle, Game theory, Nash equilibrium, Renewable energy, Smart Grid
Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain
Electric cars are entering into the automotive market. However, their prices are still expensive mostly due to the battery cost. Additionally, electric vehicle batteries are considered not useful for traction purposes after they have lost a 20% of its capacity. Having still an 80% of its capacity, these batteries may work on stationary applications with lower requirements than electric mobility.In order to recover part of the battery costs came out the idea of giving batteries a second life. Nonetheless, before its reuse, these batteries should follow a transformation process that, although valuable, it is not simple. They should be collected, checked and adapted, if necessary, to their new application requirements. Nowadays, each car manufacturer has its own battery partner using a particular cell shape and chemistry. Additionally, each battery has different module configurations and electronic control parameters and equipment. Moreover, each battery model has a particular refrigeration system in the final packaging that forms the whole battery.All these aspects put the reusability of electric vehicle batteries into a narrow path where a bad step could lead to business collapse. This study shows some of the difficulties and issues that should be taken into account when managing second life battery businesses.
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Keywords: Electric vehicle, lithium ion, batteries, second life, reuse.
Center for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA, USA
With the ever-increasing demand for mobile traffic, it is important that telecom networks are modernized with all the capacity, quality and coverage extension technologies available. Due to the pressures of population and modern technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. Energy efficiency and low carbon strategies have recently attracted a lot of concern. Solutions that help reduce greenhouse gases and make a less harmful environmental impact are required. Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets), comprising a mix of lower-power nodes (like Femtocells) and higher power Macro base-stations, provide the means to enhance quality and coverage and offer scalable networks towards 1,000 fold gains in capacity as per 5G technology vision. Femtocells increase the capacity of the Macro-only networks by moving high-data rate users to low-power Femto alternatives and are likely to proliferate in next-generation wireless systems. High-density Femtocell deployments are seen as future low-cost solution to significantly gain capacity compared to conventional deployments. However, in such deployments, the problem of interference appears between the Macrocells and Femtocells as well as among the Femtocells themselves. Expensive insights into Macro-Femto interference are researched and available, while Femto-Femto interference is only partially addressed. This research work outlines this problem and points to possible solutions to mitigate Femto- Femto interference, increase network capacity, decrease power consumption and likewise reduce the CO2 footprint.
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Keywords: Femtocell, HetNets, Interference Management, RES, LTE, CO2 Emission, Power Saving.