1Deutsche Telekom, Telekom Innovation Laboratories, Winterfeldtstraße 21, 10781 Berlin, Germany
2Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG, Thurn-und-Taxis-Straße 10, 90411 Nürnberg, Germany
3Berlin Institute for Software Defined Networks (BISDN), Christburger Straße 45, 10405 Berlin, Germany
4Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin (ZIB), Takustraße 7, 14195 Berlin, Germany
5Cisco GmbH, Friedrich-Ebert-Straße 35, 34117 Kassel, Germany
Telecommunication networks and power grids are parallel hierarchical maintenance structures with system-wide reach. National telecommunication carriers figure among the top energy consumers in developed national economies and, thus, it is important to improve the network energy efficiency – in particular in the light of the increasing user and usage demands. One promising option is to exploit traffic dynamics by introducing load-adaptive operation modes leading – besides internal energy efficiency improvements – to a systemic electricity consumer with spatially and temporally fluctuating electricity demands.
Newways of coupling both of the two network types open up the possibility of an optimized joint control of the ‘energy’ and ‘transport’ dimensions of the telecommunication network. Due to the high overall electricity demands of telecommunication networks, their new flexibility can be assumed to be of a relevant scale, leading to optimized overall energy consumption. To fill out such a role, networks have to be made amenable to control signals of different nature. Thus, the hitherto static and unidirectional powering of the telecommunication network is replaced by feedback options and overall load variability in space and time.In the project DESI, funded by a German federal grant and conducted by a topically wide-ranging consortium, the different coupling mechanisms such as load-adaptive network operation mode or distributed energy storage capability were studied in detail along the entire information and communication technology services delivery chain. This article summarizes theoretical and practical project results and gives insights on their expected future relevance. Project results showed that the coupling and joint optimization leads to an overall optimized energy efficient and reliable telecommunication network operation at the same time offering valuable stability services to power grids.
Keywords: Telecommunication network, energy efficiency, network topology and traffic model, network optimization, smart grid, controllable load, demand-side management.
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1Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology, Mumbai University, India
2SGDCOE, North Maharashtra University, India
3VJTI, Mumbai, India
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In this paper energy-efficient spectrum sensing for multichannel cooperative cognitive radio is proposed. The most essential characteristic of Cognitive Radio is spectrum sensing. The energy consumption of spectrum sensing is mainly affected by how often the primary channel sensed by secondary users. By keeping this point in mind, proposed approach tried to reduce sensing time and also improves the detection precision by quality energy detection. In conventional spectrum sensing secondary users sense the spectrum without disturbing primary user and try to find a vacant slot individually or cooperatively. In doing this a lot of energy is wasted in sensing by secondary users. Cooperation also increases the amount of energy spent in sensing the spectrum as well as in reporting the message about the spectrum vacancy to fusion center. In the proposed method the spectrum sensing is done by external node. It is verified that if the external node is used for channel sensing the tradeoff between sensing/transmission and wait/switch is enhanced. This proposed method reduces energy consumption and improves throughput. Analytical expressions for above method are derived. This work suggests an effective energy saving scheme compared to conventional schemes.
Keywords: Cooperative Cognitive Radio, Energy Efficient, External Sensing, Multichannel.
1School of Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
2School of Electrical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India
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Power efficient transmission has received significant attention among cellular network operators to reduce the environmental effects and to maintain profitability. Since the evolved node base station (eNB) is the primary power consumer in the cellular network, endeavours have been made to study eNB power consumption and to find approaches to enhance power efficiency. The concept of multi-hop relay (MHR) network is introduced in 4G and beyond standards to reduce the deployment cost and transmission power while improving the coverage and capacity. Here relay stations (RS) are also deployed by the network operators along with eNBs to maximize the average spectral efficiency per user. But the deployment of RSs is not standardized. Improper RS deployment leads to severe quality loss. In this work, RS deployment based on cost (RDBC) approach is utilized which identifies the RS deployment combinations and deploys different types of RSs to maximize the system quality. Through simulations, it is validated that the proposed approach maximizes the transmission quality, coverage and effectiveness in power consumption and minimizes the deployment cost and interference when compared to many of the conventional RS deployment approaches. The scheme utilized ensures power efficient transmission and acts as a potential candidate for green radio communication.
Keywords: Green radio communication, Multi-hop relay (MHR) network, Power consumption effectiveness index (PCEI), RS deployment based on cost (RDBC), Relay Station (RS) deployment.
1School of Electrical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India-632014
2GE Power, General Electric, Garching b. Munchen-85748, Germany
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This article discusses the work carried out in the development, validation and verification of the Turbine/Governor model (GGOV1) in GE Control Systems Toolbox®
to comprehend the impact of Turbine controls post system transient. Simulation related studies are carried out using the model developed. MATLAB®
has been used as the platform for validating the model. The validated model is replicated in the GE Control System Toolbox®
, for enhanced grid Simulation related studies. Comparative analysis of results obtained in both platforms with the validated parameters has been accomplished.
Keywords: GGOV1 Turbine/Governor model, Frequency transient, MATLAB®;/Simulink®;, GE Control Systems Toolbox®;, Gas Turbine.