Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India
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In order to ensure the longevity of electricity supply for human living and comfort on earth, electric grid should be an intelligent, well established, automated and more importantly environmental friendly energized network. Demand crises and CO2 emissions all over the globe have led to deploy more number of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs). The Smart grid technologies are becoming the most important entities in the electric power sector, in terms of modernizing the legacy grid with high-level penetration of RES and maintain reliability and quality of electric power. Exploitation of advanced technologies to optimize the power usage and reduce greenhouse gasses emission is inevitably the main concerns for the electric utility.RESintegration brought so many issues along with their advantages. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) during last decade has shown drastic market growth with reduced cost and higher energy density storage. Bulk number of PEV integration with uncoordinated charging schedule is a big hurdle to power system operation. This paper mainly focuses on the challenges and issues that will arise in Smart Distribution System (SDS) because of high-level penetration of both RES and PEV. The impacts of intermittent PES and uncoordinated PEVs on distribution network stability are discussed. Exploitation of PEV as a storage unit with bi-directional power flow is discussed to mitigate solar and wind power generation fluctuations. Real time data from Danish distribution network is used for case study to demonstrate PEVutilization for grid ancillary support.
Keywords: Integration of RES, Demand Side Management (DSM), PEV, ESS, State Estimation, Smart Protection, V and f control, Smart Home and Micro Grid.
1Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore-641021, India
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cummins College of Engineering, Pune-411052, India
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore-641021, India
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For promising outcome in auto industries, scheduling place a vital role for effective utilization of jobs allocate to machine. Jobs and machines are two attributes need to schedule for minimize makespan time, for each job we need to schedule the machine. Each job in a machine has its own process time, manipulation of all process time said to be makespan time that should minimized. Job shop scheduling is an effective tool incorporate with NP hard problems to achieve minimized makespan time. To achieve minimized makespan time optimization involve in this process those are namely GreyWolf Optimization (GWO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Social Spider Optimization (SSO). While applying these aforementioned optimization techniques, they reveal minimized makespan time compare with benchmark problems. Amid, SSO revels minimized makespan time for all twelve-bench mark problems compare with other competitive algorithm namely GWO and PSO. These techniques play a vital role to regulate the emissions during real time auto industries trial and error process on job shop scheduling. Therefore, the soft computing techniques contribute significant part on conserving environment from air pollution.
Keywords: Makespan time, Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Social Spider Optimization (SSO).
1Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat-395007, India
2Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur, Maharashtra-440010, India
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Electrical vehicles (EVs) are gaining more attention due to its environmental friendly approach. However, growth is limited by consumer mindset and its high initial cost in developing countries. In a country like India, the majority of the vehicle running on the road are fossil fuel based and it does not comply with emission norms. Conversion of the conventional vehicle (CV) into the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is promising option to reduce environmental impact of present vehicles running on the road towards sustainable transportation. However, limited by conversion complexity and economics. The paper discusses costing trends of electric powertrain components and cost analysis for conversion. A diesel engine car converted to parallel PHEV is used for study with 70 bhp engine for 60 km range. In-depth cost analysis is presented for conversion. Two different scenarios are considered for calculation with a current and futuristic timeline and its implications are presented in detail.
Keywords: Cost Analysis, Payback, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Return on Investment.
1Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Karnataka, Surathkal, India – 575 025
2Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, NMAM Institute of Technology, Karnataka, India – 574 110
3Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu, India
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Power quality (PQ) is gaining a great deal of importance as more sensitive loads are introduced into the utility grid. The degradation of product quality, damage of equipment and temporary shutdowns are the general issues associated with PQ problems in industries. Any mal-operation or damage of the industrial sensitive loads results in monetary losses disproportionately higher than the severity of the PQ issues. The evolution of power electronics technology replaced the traditional power quality mitigation methods with the introduction of Custom Power System devices (CUPS). The major power electronic controller based CUPS are DSTATCOM, DVR and UPQC. DVR is a pertinent solution for the economic losses caused by the PQ issues in the industries. Among the CUPS, DVR is the most cost-effective one. In the published literature, only a few papers correspond to the review of DVR technology. In this paper, a systematic review of published literature is conducted and a description is given on the design, standards and challenges in the DVR technology. A detailed survey is conducted on the published literature to address the various aspects and issues in the DVR system. This paper arrangement gives the working principle, structure, various topologies, compensation techniques, voltage sag detection methods and control methods of the DVR under different sections. The section “Challenges faced by the DVR” included in the manuscript can be useful for the researchers beginning their work in the domain of DVR. The simulation results using the sim power system tool of MATLAB/Simulink software are provided for analysis and comparison.
Keywords: Voltage sag, DVR, Inverter, Compensation techniques, Voltage sag detection method, Control methods
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Bengaluru, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
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Research into Wireless power transfer, its applications and adoption is currently growing at a rapid rate.Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) provides a lot of advantages and serves as a solution to the drawbacks of wired power transfer techniques. Research nowadays is focused on developing an inductive power transfer module for transferring power wirelessly. In order to improve the efficiency and the range of power transfer, new coil structures and design schemes for wireless power transfer have been introduced. This paper provides a comparative study of a WPT circuit with a boost rectifier circuit and another with a single-stage boost rectifier circuit, with focus on reducing switching losses and complexity. The DC side inductor and switch of the boost circuit is replaced with an AC side inductor to overcome the disadvantages of boost circuit. For each circuit explained in this paper, Matlab simulation results of output voltage, current and efficiency are analyzed and presented.
Keywords: Wireless power charging, Electric vehicle (EV), Inductive power transfer (IPT), Coupled coils.
R. Mahalakshmi1, K. Deepa1 and K.C. Sindhu Thampatty2
1Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bengaluru, India
2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, India
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This paper proposes a control strategy for a multi-level Current Source Inverter (CSI) which acts as an interface between renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, fuel cell etc. and grid/loads to satisfy the power demand. The control strategy aims to reduce the number of switches and the number of input sources used in the CSI and obtain an output with least Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and increased number of levels (13). The proposed system uses seven switches and three current sources to obtain a 13 level output. The new control strategy is tested in different operating conditions in a split phase single phase low torque induction motor.The Simulation model is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. THDs of 13 level outputs from current source inverter is analyzed and compared in detail.Acomparative analysis of the proposed CSI with existing CSI topologies is made. It is observed that the proposed topology uses less number of switches and inductors to obtain different levels at the output. The proposed inverter provides better performance with satisfactory results.
Keywords: PWM Techniques, Multi-level inverter, Harmonic Distortion, CSI.
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Bangalore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
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Microgrid systems show great promise in integrating large numbers of distributed generation systems, based on renewable energy sources into future power systems. The characteristics of power generated by renewable energy sources is random, unregulated and highly unreliable, vowing to the stochastic nature of the sources like wind, solar etc. While integrating the locally generated power into grid sounds very attractive, there are many operational and planning concerns. Also, a major chunk of power generated is weather dependent, this makes an energy storage system and/or backup power generation system an imperative part of microgrids. A proper planning and designing is the first step towards integrated power. Optimization techniques justify cost of investment of a Microgrid by enabling economic and reliable usage of resources. This paper summarizes various optimization methodologies and criterion for optimization of Microgrids. Extensive study of published literature show that computational alternatives like evolutionary, heuristic and non-classical algorithms show better results when compared to other conventional methods. The study of multi-objective optimization problems shows superior performance by combining intelligent optimization algorithms with adaptive techniques.
Keywords: Microgrids, Multi-objective optimization, Stochastic method, Particle swarm optimization, Intelligent algorithms, Adaptive techniques.